Friday, September 8, 2017

Originals by Adam Grant

Adam Grant is one of the popular writers of our time. In this book, he focuses on Originals who are some kind of non-conformists (perhaps from the stand point of widely accepted world views) that are changing the world.

Incredibly, he dedicates one full chapter in this book to Procrastination. He claims that this commonly hated vice is useful when it comes to the question of creativity albeit it is a sworn enemy of productivity. Actually, I did follow the prescription by delaying this post for more than a quarter :-).

He is a master in introducing terms which are relatively unused in interesting ways, for example,Vujade (opposite of Dejavu) which means look at the familiar situation in a new light and so on.

The points he adduces are also equally compelling. Couple of examples.

1.  When parents encourage their children to develop strong values, they effectively limit their influence:  When Winstead went public with her rebellion political views, her father quipped: "I messed it up. I raised you to have an opinion and I forgot to tell you that, it was supposed to be mine!".

2. "Appeal to the Character rather than behavior”. For example, instead of saying "Please don't cheat" say, “Please don't be a cheater". When the emphasis shifts from behavior to character, people evaluate their choices differently. Instead of asking if the behavior will achieve the results they want, they take the action because that is the right thing to do. It is like if somebody is drowning, you don't ask which god but tend to just jump and save.

He cites, more diversified the exposure, greater the chance of better idea(s) selection in future. Gives examples of Edison, Galileo kind of luminaries - chronologically , they are far too much in the rear view mirror to be germane for us, yet I will take the examples with more than a pinch of salt. I personally think we are in "deep dive" era where occasionally lateral exposures would come handy and perhaps make a good story. 

Interestingly, he gives examples of how artistic hobby and correlates to of winning  Nobel Prize. Music (2x), Drawing, Painting (7x), Modelling, Mechanics (12x), Performing arts, Magic (22x). For example, someone who is practicing magic is 22 times more likely to win the Nobel assuming he/she also focused on the main job!

Sure enough, no management book can escape one matrix (usually 2x2). Here, he discusses four options (1) Exit (2) Voice (3) Neglect (4) Persistence based on change/maintain the situation (Vector-1) and Beneficial/Detrimental to the organization (Vector-2). The discussions thereof are very good.

In the long run, we always regret the errors of omission rather than commission. If we were to run our lives again, he strongly feels we would censor less. I tend to agree with him on opportunities but not sure about people interactions or let us say spirituality - anyway, we get the message.

This book with all the wonderful snippets, gives us a good approximation of the ORIGINALS and how they are only subtly different from the rest - not vastly different. It is a warm and comfy feeling.

Scot Adams famously said, "Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes - Art is knowing which ones to keep". So, with many examples, you need to artistically navigate to decide which ones to keep.

Thanks for reading this far.


1. TED Talks by Adam Grant.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Throwing rocks at the GOOGLE bus by Douglas Rushkoff

When you read a book, sometimes you get the feeling of dejavu – a feeling that we have already seen or gone through it before. But how about reading a book that gives a feeling that is orthogonal to it – I mean vujade? That is, we have never seen this familiar thing in that light feeling.

This is my first book by Doug albeit he seems to be a prolific writer and has been writing for quite some time and I am impressed. 

Doug is a worried man like many of us about the direction in which the world is moving. He discusses the unequal distribution of wealth, and technologies like robots, AI, and algorithms moving rapidly to replace millions of jobs without much societal deliberation about the resulting consequences. He presents his thoughts on how they can be optimized to help the society as a whole instead of blindly running with the changes to wherever they take us. He might not give solutions for everything, but he does point out many potential pitfalls.

Key ideas that got my attention (by no means exhaustive).

1.  Concentration of wealth is not self-correcting.
2.  One has design for the velocity of business instead of focusing on growth - to quote him, Money is a verb not a noun. Don’t hoard keep it circulation.
3.   Growth cannot be an end by itself. He gives “twitter” as an example.
4.    Technology does take away jobs and the next generation jobs are less than previous one in terms of number and usually involves less skill and prone to commoditization.
5.    Most of us are in “extractive” business rather than generative and circulatory business which alone is sustainable over long run. This may sound forbiddingly abstract but will be clear when you read the book.
6.    Alternatives to charted business corporations models like Benefit corporations, Flexible purpose corporations are well explained with examples.
7.    Corporations did not emerge – they were invented and hence there is a scope for re-inventing them in order to restore the power of middle class. His focus is on distributed prosperity.
8.    His views on social media is very refreshing. (He gives examples in music and host of other industries.)
9.    He has brilliantly applied Marshall McLuhan classic litmus test questions on media
a.      What does the medium enhance or amplify?
b.      What does the medium make obsolete?
c.       What does the medium flip into when pushed to extreme?
He takes Automotive and Cellphone as examples – and I am convinced by his explanations.
10.  He highlights the benefits of local currencies and importance of thriving local economies.

Now coming back to his Twitter: It was successful, but it is not successful enough to justify the money investors have pumped in. Already it had good revenues, happy employees, users were well served, but it may never grow enough to win back 100 times the initial $20Billion bet. To do that, it has to grow bigger and faster than the economy of many nations! Isn’t that a bit too much to ask of an app that sends out messages of 140 characters or less?
He says that there is a disproportionate relationship between capital and value.

He points out that for some of the products prices may be low – but costs (he means social to a large extent) are high. Receptionist being replaced by answering machines, managers getting replaced by algorithms, workers being replaced by robots etc. His examples are really striking and poignant.

In any case, I am going to read more of his works.

Thanks for reading this far.


Thursday, December 31, 2015

My LinkedIn Year-2015 Posts.

Hello Readers:

Year 2015, I did not post any. But I did write on LinkedIN. They are not book reviews, but some of my views on something specific I have experienced in my career.

I have given the links of the four posts I have made last year.

Design Debt:

Design Alternatives:

Prototyping Scenarios

TT Quotient (Trust and Transparency Quotient)

As always comments are welcome. Thanks for taking efforts to go and see there!


Sunday, February 1, 2015

Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End– Dr Atul Gawande

GUEST POST by N.R.Ramesh

For those who are not familiar with Atul Gawande, a short introduction is probably in order. He is a surgeon, lives and works in the US at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and has been writing quite extensively. He is a staff writer for the ‘The New Yorker’ magazine, and has published three books earlier, ‘Complications’, ‘Better’ and ‘The Checklist Manifesto’. These books deal with the challenges of practicing medicine, starting from the dilemmas doctors face when they have to treat with incomplete information to running hospitals better and how to make the medical practice safer.

In this book, Dr. Gawande has taken a critical look at how modern society is dealing with the end of life care. He starts by emphasizing that our bodies eventually start failing and the end eventually happens due to the cumulative effects of all the changes due to ageing, starting with cellular degeneration to structural changes to our anatomy. Next he traces a little bit of history of how end of life care has changed from what were called the ‘poor houses’ in the US to the modern day ‘nursing homes’. He also explores the differences between different societies and finds that as the overall economic situation improves, most societies around the globe follow a similar path in terms of dealing with the evening of one’s life.

He vividly describes how the current average nursing home or assisted living communities in the US, and probably in most other developed economies are more designed to be places where one is kept “safe”, and “medically alive” at the cost of everything else that may matter for the resident. He has interviewed several residents, care givers, geriatricians and finds that the routine in such homes are designed for the overall efficiency of the staff and care givers and do not have any flexibility that the residents desire. He highlights this to be one of the first things that people who move into such places miss and makes them feel that they are no longer in their “homes”. The regulations that govern such communities are also only focused on the physical safety of the residents and hardly anything else. Regulations have certainly helped to improve the general hygiene and comfort levels from the days of the “poor houses”, but have not addressed the wholesome needs of the residents. He also gives a good account of hospice care which is getting popular under which one is able to maintain a decent quality of life staying in their own homes.

Dr. Gawande has also interviewed and visited some of the communities that have been trying to fix this issue and have tried to make the residents lives more meaningful. He talks about the community that tried to collocate close to a school with kids visiting them during their breaks or where the residents can watch the kids play, and another one where they tried bringing in pets like birds to keep the residents engaged. It seems that having something meaningful to do, however little it may be due to one’s physical limitations does a world of good to the resident’s mental state and it rubs off into their physical well-being as well.

He then talks about the difficult choices one has to make when faced with terminal illnesses. He illustrates this with a few patients he has followed, primarily those facing terminal cancers and the difficult choices one has to make with respect to the treatment regimens, especially when the outcomes predicted are not very rosy. Quality of life seems to be taking a big hit for some who opt for these treatment regimens and the last few weeks of their life is spent secluded in an Intensive Care Unit, away from their family and friends, and often with multiple tubes into their bodies to keep them “alive”. He suggests that when we know the end is inevitable and fairly close, it may be worth considering what is really important for the individual and allow them to make those choices. He also feels that the medical community, especially Doctors need to be better trained to have these conversations when the person is fully conscious and aware, and help them make the right choices. One of the persons described is his own father who is diagnosed with cancer and how he chose to decline some treatment options towards the end, and decided to stay at home with hospice care.

Overall, a very good book that really takes a critical view of the current state of affairs for those in the evening of their lives, and he has dealt with this subject as candidly as possible. The core message of the book, if I have to sum it up in a single line is that the individual should have a say in how they want to spend their last living days and the medical community and family need to try and make that possible as best as we can.

Saturday, November 22, 2014

How will you measure your life? By Clay Christensen et'al

How will you measure your life? Finding fulfillment using lessons from some of the world's greatest businesses By Clayton M Christensen, James Allworth & Karen Dillion

This book is an eclectic one– a dose of management, bit of philosophy and a theory driven prediction all thrown in for a good measure. Main author, Harvard Business School Prof Clayton M Christensen had a brush with mortality [1]and hence his life lessons are firsthand experience which makes it really compelling. Also, as a writer he is a very accomplished author. His books Innovator dilemma and Innovator’s solution are well known classics. His Harvard Business Review articles have won McKinsey award many times.

Prof Clay advocates to develop “theory” which in turn can predict, so much so, he distills that thought “I don’t have an opinion but my theory has”. In the chapter which is attractively titled as “Just because you have feathers”, he observes that, there is a strong correlation between able to fly and having feathers and wings – what the would-be believed that allowed the birds to soar. But, the would-be aviators didn't understand the causal mechanisms – what actually causes something to fly? They could have seen some warning signs: Ostriches have wings and feathers but they can’t fly: Bats have wings but no feathers but they are great fliers and flying squirrels have neither wings nor feather but they get by. The real breakthrough came later when the concept of lift was explained by the Dutch mathematician David Bernoulli. So author claims, from then on we moved from correlation to causation thereby making giant strides in aviation. Fair enough. But, I have a trouble in subscribing to it fully. We are in an era where correlation would often over power the causation. For very complex systems, the causation factors are so many it is nearly impossible to develop a theory or formula to make a robust prediction. Surprisingly, correlation proves good enough in most cases in this ephemeral world.

Saint Augustine articulated long back that, total abstinence is easier than perfect moderation. Clay echoes similar approach when it comes to adhering to one’s beliefs/values – don’t give an excuse “only for this time”. I would totally agree since every time could be unique and therefore demand an exception. He gives his own example. He does not play on Sundays which is Sabbath day as a matter of principle. When the finals basketball tournament came on Sunday he told his coach he will not play. Coach was incredulous. Thankfully his team won. He also strongly advocates that principle of sacrifice deepens the commitment – be it job, marriage or friendships.

I liked his distinction between bad capital and good capital. He refers to Prof Amid Bhide, whose research suggests that 93% of the companies had to abandon the original idea before they became successful. In other words, winners became so because after the original idea failed they had some cash left to try another one. When winning strategy is not clear, we should be patient for growth and impatient for profits. Once clear we should be impatient for growth and patient for profits. Capital which is in that order is good capital and the other way is bad capital.

Clay’s caution on outsourcing is poignant. He talks about the Greek tragedy of outsourcing by DELL computers. Initially, the business model was disruptive  as they pioneered made to order model rather than standardized builds.   It was also very modular. Each sub system can be picked by the buyer based on needs.This transition was nicely aided by Taiwanese company called AZUS. First they did a very small manufacturing services to DELL.Then,
slowly moved on to make mother boards and later everything for DELL except the branding part. It eventually robbed DELL of some critical capabilities that would be required in future. He suggests a framework (Resources-Process-Priorities) to avoid the danger of outsourcing ones way to mediocrity. It is like Theseus ship where every part of the ship got replaced over time leaving one to wonder can it still be considered as Theseus’s ship?

It is a small book but worth the read many times.
Thanks for reading this far.



Thursday, July 31, 2014

What Money can’t buy by Michael Sandel

Economist E.F. Schumacher talks about two types of problems from a conceptual level. One is “convergent” problem where more one iterates, chances of arriving at an appropriate solution increases and the other “divergent” problem where more effort only increases the options and differences. He cites bicycle wheel design as an example of convergent and how to teach children as an example of divergent which has been in debate for the last 100 years if not more.

Clearly, this book's author has embarked on a pesky divergent problem. He discusses the moral limits of the markets. We all intuitively know that there are limits to what money can buy. But when you read this kind of work, you worry that the number of such things may be minuscule. I am tempted to agree briefly with Malcolm Forbes, who famously said, “those who say, money can’t buy happiness are shopping in the wrong places”.

The strength of this book comes from the examples. They are well thought out and convincing for me. However, in the end, author does not provide a final verdict and leaves it all to us. He leaves a philosophical framework for us to ponder. Let us look at some examples.

Black Rhinos and Walrus Hunting: Black Rhinos were on the brink of extinction. From 20,000 it fell to 600. Then market solution appears in the form of eco-tourism with a twist – Pay $150K for hunting one Rhino. Good news is that, the money brought back Rhinos from the brink. Still to me, it appeared like a Faustian bargain because it is depressing to kill them for a payment. Author concurs saying, it is like saving the ancient redwood forests by allowing the wealthy donors the right to carve their names/initials in the same trees. Even more sober story for Atlantic Walrus. They are valued for meat, skin, and oil. They are completely defenseless as well as harmless. In 1928, Canadian government banned Walrus hunting with an exception for aborigines Inuit group which has been depending on it for the last few thousand years. By 1990, they approached Canadian government with proposal to sell their rights to wealthy hunters and was given the go-ahead. Inuit people now guide the killing for a fee of $6-$7K.  Walrus move so slowly, hunters come very near and shoot. Since Walrus hunting is banned hunters can’t even carry back anything as memento. In terms of actual challenge it is next to nothing. As NY times puts it “a long boat ride to shoot a large bean bag chair”. Author discusses nuanced points about fine and fee. I thought, I knew the difference but I am not so sure now.

There are something people don’t do for money and when that aspect is brought in, things take a different twist as in case of nuclear dump in Switzerland. 51% of citizens in a Swiss village said they would OK the nuclear dump site because their sense of civic duty outweighed safety concerns. Subsequently, when a sweetener was added declaring that government would offer some financial compensation, acceptance dropped to 25%. Then quantum of compensation was increased only to learn that acceptance dropped even further. Remember the advertisement “There are something money can’t buy. For everything else, there is a Master Card”. Looks like nuclear dump permission is not Master card friendly!

Author explains that there are two kinds of goods. The things like friends, Nobel prizes that money can’t buy. Things like kidneys, Children which money can buy but arguably shouldn’t. He confesses the distinction is less clear than it appears. His main point is that, we have seamlessly digressed from market economy to market society where almost everything is up for sale. Good grief for Credit cards of the world. In the introduction he gives some stunning examples. He also discusses the scary case of viaticals. His observation is when fully driven by market, it breeds inequality, and hence market reasoning is incomplete without moral reasoning.

Author talks about insurance as one of the moot areas. His profound remarks are thus: “Life insurance has always been two things in one. A pooling of risk for mutual security and grim wager, a hedge against death. The two aspects always co-existed as an uneasy combo. In the absence of moral and legal restraints, the wagering aspect threatens to swamp the social purpose that justifies the insurance in the first place. When the social purpose is lost or obscured, fragile lines separating insurance, investments and gambling come undone”. To get the full import of this one has to understand viaticals deeply.

He talks about advertisement in police cars and other public utilities which are worth a serious thought. I liked his view points on advertisements in schools / educational institutions. I am also weary of such marketing spins inside such locations. To quote him “Advertising encourages people to want things to satisfy desires. Education encourages people to critically examine their desires and restrain or elevate them. The purpose of advertisement is to recruit customers and purpose of education is to cultivate citizens”. It reminds us of the paradox “liberty and equality”. As we all know, when the liberty (freedom) goes unhindered, albeit it appears to be a virtue, breeds inequality in the long run. Similarly, if we focus too much on equality (again a virtue by itself), it will result in too much of restriction or lack of freedom over the long run. Hence, the slogan Liberty-Equality-Fraternity, the 3rd higher force which hopefully regulates the first two virtues for a healthy balance.

I closed this book saying to myself, toughest non-technical problems in this world are not solved - they are merely grappled with. It is not without reason data base guru Jim Gary said “May all your problems be technical”.

Thanks for reading this far.